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Current Affairs 13-07-2020- Hagia sophia

The sixth century Byzantine monument had been at the centre of the conflict between Ottoman Muslims and eastern Orthodox Christians for centuries. Built as a cathedral by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, it was converted into a mosque by the Ottomans after Mehmed the Conqueror captured the city in 1453. For five centuries, it was a jewel in the Ottoman Sultan’s crown. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founding father of modern Turkey, closed down the mosque in 1930 as part of his secularisation drive and reopened it as a museum five years later. Ever since, it has been one of Turkey’s most visited monuments as well as a symbol of Christian-Muslim co-existence. In recent years, the demand for converting the museum into a mosque gained traction with support from Mr. Erdoğan and his party.

Kemalism (Turkish: Kemalizm), also known as Atatürkism (Turkish: Atatürkçülük, Atatürkçü düşünce), or the Six Arrows (Turkish: Altı Ok), is the founding ideology of the Republic of Turkey. Kemalism, as it was implemented by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, was defined by sweeping political, social, cultural and religious reforms designed to separate the new Turkish state from its Ottoman predecessor and embrace a modernized lifestyle, including the establishment of democracy, secularism, state support of the sciences and free education, many of which were first introduced to Turkey during Atatürk's presidency in his reforms.

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